Saturday, 19 April 2014

Mencari Ilmu (Catatan al-Ghazali dalam Bidayah al-Hidayah)

Imam al-Ghazali dalam Kitabnya 'Bidayah al-Hidayah' (terjemahan),
mengusulkan kepada orang Islam yang
mencari ilmu (iqtibas al-Ilmi); bahawa apabila yang kamu niatkan dengan menuntut ilmu itu adalah untuk bersaing, berbangga-bangga, mengungguli rakan-rakan, menarik perhatian manusia dan mengumpulkan harta benda dunia. Maka kamu sebenarnya kamu sedang berusaha memusnahkan agamamu, membinasakan dirimu dan menjual akhiratmu dengan dunia.

Transaksimu rugi dan perniagaanmu gagal dan gurumu adalah pembantu dalam melakukan maksiat dan sekutumu dalam kerugianmu itu. Ibarat orang menjualkan pedang kepada seorang perompak.
Ibarat Sabda Rasulullah s.a.w,
" Sesiapa membantu (seseorang) dalam melakukan perbuatan maksiat meskipun hanya dengan sebahagian perkataan, maka dia adalah sekutu bagi orang itu dalam maksiat tersebut"

Wednesday, 19 February 2014

Kurikulum Menurut Prof. Hasan Langgulung

Kurikulum ialah "sejumlah pengalaman pendidikan, kebudayaan, sosial, olahraga dan kesenian yang disediakan oleh sekolah bagi murid-murid di dalam dan di luar sekolah dengan maksud menolongnya untuk berkembang secara menyeluruh dalam segala segi dan mengubah tingkahlaku mereka sesuai dengan tujuan-tujuan pendidikan"

Friday, 1 February 2013

The Prophet’s Methods for Correcting People’s Mistakes


During my PhD study, I am revealed this: (islamhouse.com)

Not hastening to tell someone he is wrong. Some- thing happened to ‘Umar which he himself told about: “I heard Hishaam ibn Hakeem ibn Hizaam reciting Soorat al-Furqaan during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). I listened to his recitation, and he was reciting it differently to the way that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite it. I nearly interrupted his prayer, but I waited until he had said the salaam, then I grabbed him by his cloak and said, ‘Who taught you to recite this soorah I heard you reciting?’ He said, ‘The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught me to recite it.’ I said, ‘You are lying! The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught me to recite it differently.’ I took him to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, ‘I heard him reciting Soorat al-Furqaan differently than the way you taught me to recite it.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said,
 

‘Let him go. Recite, O Hishaam.’ He recited it as I had heard him recite it. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘This is how it was revealed.’ Then he said, ‘Recite, O ‘Umar.’ So I recited it as he had taught me. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘This is how it was revealed. This Qur’an was revealed with seven ways of recitation, so recite it in the way that is easiest for you.’ ” (Re- ported by al-Bukhaari, al-Fath, 4992).


Among the educational methods we learn from this story are the following:
• Telling each one to recite in front of the other and approving their recitation was more effective in confirm- ing that both were correct and neither was wrong.
• When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) told ‘Umar to let go of Hishaam, this was preparing both parties to listen in a calm manner. This was an indication that ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) had been too hasty.
• A person who is seeking knowledge should not be too hasty to condemn any opinion that differs from that with which he is familiar; he should first be sure of what he is saying, because that opinion may turn out to be a valid scholarly opinion.

Wednesday, 9 January 2013

Prof. Dr. S.M. Naquib al-Attas: Education

According the Prof. Dr. S.M. Naquib al-Attas, education encompasses the 3 fundamental elements:

  1. The process
  2. The contents; and
  3. The recipient
Source: The concept of Education in Islam (1980), paper was presented at the The First World Conference on Muslim Education in Makkatul Mu'azzamah.


He also urges about the adab:

'Adab' is the discipline of body, mind and soul; the discipline that assures the recognition and acknowledgement of one’s proper place in relation to one’s physical, intellectual and spiritual capacities and potentials; the recognition and acknowledgement of the reality that knowledge and being are ordered hierarchically according to their various levels (maratib) and degrees (darajat).
 

Renungan: Ash-Shahid Sheik Hasan Al-Banna

Ash-Shahid Hasan Al-Banna menggariskan beberapa panduan secara kasar kepada anak muridnya, bahawa masyarakat mempunyai 4 jenis manusia:

  1. Orang-orang beriman
  2. Orang-orang yang teragak-agak (berbelah bagi)
  3. Orang-orang yang yang oportunis (suka mengambil kesempatan)
  4. Orang-orang yang menentang dan mempunyai sangka buruk (prejudice)
Nota:
Kenapa 'Ash-Shahid', beliau ditembak mati oleh polis rahsia pemerintah Mesir pada 12 Feb. 1949 dalam usaha mengembangkan Islam dan seorang Pendakwah yang ulung abad ke 20.

Rujukan: Hasan al-Banna: Mohd. Mokhtar Shafii (2002); Sumbangannya Terhadap Pendidikan & Kebangkitan Islam (Jurnal Pendidikan Islam (Jilid 10, Bil. 1)

Wednesday, 26 December 2012

Imam Al-Ghazali (450 - 505AH)

Menurut Prof. Mashhad Al-Allaf dalam bukunya bertajuk "Al-Ghazali on Meta-Philosophy & his Journey for the Truth (2006)", Imam al-Ghazali ingin mencari kebenaran dan ingin melihat manusia sejagat hidup di dalam harmoni serta aman dan berjaya. Seperkara lagi beliau cintakan dengan ilmu.

Justeru itu, membawa beliau menimba ilmu falsafah, dan menjadikan beliau ahli falsafah yang terkemuka samada dalam dunia Islam mahupun dunia bukan Islam.

Di dalam salah bukunya yang ditulis iaitu, 'al-Arba'in fi Usul ad-Din', Imam Al-Ghazali mengenalpasti Empat perkara keperluan manusia:


  1. Berkehendakkan kepada makanan untuk hidup
  2. Berkehendakkan kepada daya seksual dan penuh memenuhi antara manusia
  3. Berkehendakkan kepada kedudukan kuasa, penguasaan dan mengawal manusia lain; dan
  4. Berkehendakkan kepada ilmu pengetahuan.

Sedutan dari buku di atas, muka surat 155-156.

In fact, throughout his life, al-Ghazālī continued to pursue knowledge and learning. Up until the last year of his life, he was engaged in writing for the public on matters necessary for them [for their salvation].9 Until his last days, al-Ghazālī remained busy reading and learning, in preparation for life after death. He died with a book found open on his chest. Al- Ghazālī further comments on his love of knowledge: 



"In the bloom of my youth and the prime of my life, from the time I reached puberty before I was twenty until now, when I am over fifty, I have continually dived, daringly, into the depths of this profound sea and waded into its deep water like a bold man, not a cautious coward.

I would penetrate far into every murky mystery, pounce upon every problem, and dash into every mazy difficulty. I would scrutinize the creed of every sect and seek to lay bare the secrets of each faction’s teaching with the aim of discriminating between the proponent of truth and the advocate of error, and between the faithful follower of tradition and the heterodox innovator. I would never take leave of an interiorist [bātinī] without wanting to learn about his interiorism, or of a literalist without wanting to know the substance of his literalism, or of a philosopher without seeking to become acquainted with the essence of his philosophy, or of a theologian [mutakallim] without endeavoring to discover the aim of his discussion and polemic, or of a sufi without eagerly trying to obtain knowledge of the secret of his serenity, or of a devout worshiper without looking into the source and substance of his piety, or of an irreligious nihilist without attempting to find out his background and motivation in order to become aware of the reasons for his bold profession of nihilism and irreligion"

(Tunggu siri-siri Imam al-Ghazali di masa akan datang...)

Friday, 21 December 2012

Pembahagian Ilmu Pengetahuan oleh Ulama ISLAM

Menurut Singkatan Literasi oleh saya, ILMU itu terbahagi kepada:

Al-Kindi (Tahun 796-873H) membahagikan ilmu ini kepada:

  1. Ilmu Teoritikal
    • Tabi'i
    • Matematik
    • Metafizik
  2. Praktikal
    • Akhlak
    • Sains Rumahtangga
    • Perancangan Bandar
Al-Farabi (878-950H) pula sedikit sahaja berbeza dengan Al-Kindi di atas:
  1. Teoritikal (Pengetahuan)
    • Tabi'i
    • Metamatik
    • Metafizik
    • Ilmu Kalam
  2. Praktikal (Amali)
    • Akhlak
    • Sains Rumahtangga
    • Perancangan Bandar
    • Ilmu Fekah
Ibnu Sina (980 - 1037H) pula membuat pembahagian ilmu kepada:
  1. Abadi
    • Sebagai tujuan
      • Teoritikal
      • Ilmu Sains
      • Matematik
      • lmu Kalam
    • Sebagai Alat
      • Praktikal
      • Akhlak
      • Sains Rumahtangga
      • Ilmu Fekah
  2. Sementara
Imam Al-Ghazali (450 - 505H) pula membahagikan kepada 2 bahagian:

Bahagian Pertama:
  1. Mukasyafah
  2. Mankulah
    • Zahir (Fizikal)
      • Ibadat
      • Adat
    • Batin
      • Muhlikah
      • Munjiyyah

Ilmu Pengetahuan & Islam

Mereka yang berilmu pengetahuan dimuliakan oleh ALLA SWT., Malaikat dan manusia di mana sahaja ianya berada. Terjemahan bermaksud: "ALLAH mengakui bahawa sesungguhnya tidaklah ada Tuhan selain daripadaNya dan Malaikat-Malaikat mengakui dan orang berilmu, yang tegak dengan keadilan". Ditafsirkan ayat di atas ini oleh Ibnu Abas RA. Beliau menjelaskan kedudukan mereka yang berilmu pengetahuan dan beriman ialah 700 tingkat tingginya daripada manusia biasa, dan setiap satu tingkat itu pula jaraknya ialah 500 tahun perjalanan.

Pengajaran diperolehi saya: Penaksiran (assessment) dan skima menaksir dan menilai tahap orang berilmu dan beriman oleh Ibn Abas RA ialah 700 tingkat tinggi dari manusia biasa dan setiap tingkat jaraknya 500 tahun perjalanan.

Rasulullah bersabda bermaksud, " Manuntut Ilmu itu wajib ke atas tiap-tiap Muslim"

Monday, 19 November 2012

Assessment and Evaluation

Two processes with compliment each other and useful to the learning/teaching. According Marie Baehr  (2010), a Vice President of Training Affair in Coe College.

Assessment provides feedback on knowledge, skills, attitudes and works products for the purpose elevating the future performance.
Assessment is the term used to look at how the level of quality of a performance or outcome could be improved in the future. Assessment process is not concerned with the level of quality, it's only with how to improve the level of quality.

While, evaluation determines the level of quality of a performance or outcomes and enables decision-making based on the level of quality demonstrated.
Evaluation is the term used to describe the determination of the level of quality. The process also focuses only on the actual level of quality with no interest in why that level was attained.